The two most significant risk factors linked to a relative and absolute five-year chance of acquiring any cancer are older age and smoking, according to a recent major study conducted by scientists at the American Cancer Society (ACS). The findings of the research were published in the journal ‘Cancer’. The findings also demonstrate that in addition to age and smoking history, clinicians should consider excess body fatness, family history of any cancer, and several other factors that may help patients determine if they may benefit from enhanced cancer screening or prevention interventions. “Single cancer type-specific screening recommendations are based on risk factors for that specific type of cancer,” said Dr Alpa Patel, senior vice president, population science at the American Cancer Society and lead author of the study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 per cent confidence intervals for association. Using these HRs, individualised Coherent Absolute Risk Estimation was used to calculate absolute risks by age.